THE 13TH ANNUAL

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON

 

MAN AND HIS

ENVIRONMENT IN HEALTH

AND DISEASE

 

SPECIAL FOCUS

HEALTH EFFECTS OF FOOD, FOOD ADDITIVES AND CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

FEBRUARY 23-26, 1995

 

SYMPOSIUM PURPOSE

 In its thirteenth consecutive year, the International Symposium is one of the most advanced forums in the world, addressing the research and treatment of environmental effects on health and disease. Assembling a faculty of top international experts, the conference presents the most current information available while providing guidelines to identify; diagnose, treat and especially to prevent environmentally triggered responses in the human body.

 

The Symposium is sponsored by the American Environmental Health Foundation,

a non-profit organization promoting research and communication in the area of environmental medicine

 

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INTRODUCTION 

In its thirteenth year, the International Symposium is one of the most advanced forums in the world addressing the research and treatment of environmental effects on health and disease. Assembling a faculty of top international experts, the conference presents the most current information available while providing guidelines to identify, diagnose, treat and especially to prevent environmentally triggered responses in the human body.

 

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

 The International Symposium on Man and His Environment in Health and Disease presents the most current information available in the field while providing guidelines to identify, diagnose, treat and especially to prevent environmentally triggered responses in the human body.

 

SPECIAL FOCUS

Health Effects of Food,

Food Additives and Chemical Contaminants

 

The 1995 Symposiums special focus on Health Effects of Food, Food Additives and Chemical Contaminants has been selected to highlight areas of medicine that are often overlooked as underlying causes of disease. This conference will explore some of the latest data on the subjects and provide a forum for discussion. Diagnosis and treatment modalities will be addressed to enlighten the practicing physician to the current technology that will aid in patient care.

 

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ACCREDITATION

 The American Academy of Environmental Medicine, Inc., is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to sponsor continuing medical education for physicians.

The American Academy of Environmental Medicine, Inc. designates this continuing medical education activity for 23.5 hours in Category 1 of the Physicians Recognition Award of the American Medical Association.

 This program has been approved by the American Osteopathic Association for 23.5 credit hours in category 2-A.

 

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GIVEN IN COOPERATION WITH

 

William J. Rea, M.D., F.A.C.S.

Symposium Chairman

Environmental Health Center - Dallas

Dallas, Texas

 

Alfred R. Johnson, D.O., Gerald H. Ross, M.D., and Berti Griffiths, Ph.D.

Environmental Health Center - Dallas

Dallas, Texas

 

Ervin J. Fenyves, Ph.D.

Department of Physics and Environmental Sciences

University of Texas at Dallas

Richardson, Texas

 

Richard M. Carlton, M.D.

American Institute of Medical Climatology

New York, New York

 

Robens Institute of Industrial and Environmental Health and Safety

University of Surrey

Guildford, England

 

Allan Lieberman, M.D.

The Center for Environmental Medicine

N. Charleston, So. Carolina

 

John L. Laseter, Ph.D.

AccuChem Laboratories

Richardson, Texas

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FACULTY INFORMATION

Deborah N. Baird, M. D.

5700 Rowlett Road, Suite 130

Rowlett, Texas 75088

 

Joel R. Butler, Ph.D.

P. O. Box 399

Dewey, Oklahoma 74029

 

Walter J. Crinnion, N.D.

The Northwest Healing Arts Center

13401 N.E. Bel-Red Road, Suite A4

Bellevue, Washington 98005

 

Ricardo O. Duffard, Ph.D.

National University of Rosario

Suipacha 531

2000 Rosario, Argentina

 

S. Boyd Eaton, M.D.

School of Medicine

Emory University

Atlanta, Georgia 30327

 

Ronald Finn, M.D.

Royal Liverpool University Hospital

Prescot Street

Liverpool L7 8XP England

 

Susan Franks, Ph.D.

University of North Texas Health Science Center at Ft. Worth

3500 Camp Bowie Boulevard

Ft. Worth, TX 76107-2699

 

Bertie Griffiths, Ph.D.

Environmental Health Center - Dallas

8345 Walnut Hill Lane, Suite 220

Dallas, TX 75231

 

Stuart Hill, B.Sc. (Hons.), Ph.D.

Dept of Natural Resource Sciences

McGill University, McDonald Campus

Box 191, 21, 111 Lakeshore

Ste. Anne de Bellevue

Quebec H9X 3V9 Canada

  

Alfred R. Johnson, D.O.

Environmental Health Center - Dallas

8345 Walnut Hill Lane, Suite 220

Dallas, Texas 75231

 

Felixtina Jonsyn, M.D.

University of Sierra Leone

Njala University College

Dept. of Biological Sciences

P.M.Bag, Freetown, Sierra Leone WEST AFRICA

 

Baolian Liu, M.D., Ph.D.

Shanxi Medical College

Department of Labor Health

Taiyuan, Shanxi 080001 China

 

Mary Kilbourne Matossian, Ph.D.

University of Maryland, History Dept.

8417 Magruder Mill Court

Bethesda, Maryland 20817

 

William Meggs, M.D.

E. Carolina University School of Medicine

103 Hidden Hills Drive

Greenville, N.C. 27858-8635

 

Jean Monro, M.D.

Breakspear Hospital

Belswains Lane

Hempel Hempstead

Hertfordshire HP3 9XL ENGLAND

 

H. Muller-Mohnssen, Ph.D.

Center for Environment and Health

Postfach 1129

D-85758 Oberschleibhein

Neuherberg, Germany

 

Hiroyuki Nishimoto, M.D.

Kitasato University

Department of Ophthalmology

1-15-1 Kitasato

Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228

 

Joseph Novak, Ph.D.

Department of Horticulture

Texas A&M University

College Station, Texas 77843-2133

 

Jon Pangborn, Ph.D.

Doctor=s Data Laboratories

170 W. Roosevelt Road

W. Chicago, Illinois 60185

 

Doris J. Rapp, M.D.

Environmental Allergy Center

2757 Elmwood Avenue

Buffalo, NY 14217

 

William J. Rea, M.D.

Environmental Health Center - Dallas

8345 Walnut Hill Lane, Suite 220

Dallas, Texas 75231

 

Sherry Rogers, M.D.

Northeast Center for Environmental Medicine

2800 W. Genesee St.

Syracuse, New York 13330-3716

 

Gerald H. Ross, M.D.

Environmental Health Center - Dallas

8345 Walnut Hill Lane, Suite 220

Dallas, Texas 75231

 

William Sargent, O.D., R.P.H.

114 Village Street

Pikeville, Kentucky 41501

 

Douglas Seba, Ph.D.

819 Peacock Plaza, Suite 643

Key West, Florida 33040

 

Theodore R. Simon, M.D.

Nuclear Medicine Consultants of Texas

4429 Southern Avenue

Dallas, Texas 75205

 

Nicolette I. Teufel, Ph.D.

Dept. of Family and Community Medicine

University of Arizona

2231 E. Speedway

Tucson, Arizona 85719

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FACULTY ABSTRACTS

Deborah N. Baird, M.D., F.A.A.P. Pediatrics, Rowlett, Texas

TMJ IMPLANT CONTROVERSY

 

Since the late 1970's, the treatment of Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) abnormalities have proliferated. Seminars of the treatment of TMJ disorders became popular and rendered a dentist an authority on the disease. As a consequence of this new found knowledge aggressive surgical intervention for disc derangements also increased. It was believed that joint pathology was the cause of the patient=s symptomatology. It was also suspect that proper disc repositioning or replacement with either autogenous or alloplastic materials would prevent future joint changes.

 

Though early reports appeared promising, over just a few years, more and more failures were occurring with reports of incapacitating pain and further joint destruction. More surgeries ensued (as few as two or as many as twenty-thirty), all to rectify these disastrous outcomes. The FDA in 1991 stepped in to withdraw some of these materials from the market.

Aside from facial disfigurement and excruciating pain, TMJ patients are now facing multi-system and end organ diseases. TMJ sufferers are lobbying for legislative changes to obtain insurance reimbursements and research funding. They are banding together in support groups for mutual empathy as well as for the dissemination of information.

 

This presentation is an overview of the basic joint structure/pathology, treatment modalities applied as well as an introduction to the different alloplastic materials used and their complications. Several clinical cases will be explored to show their close relationship to chemical sensitivity. TMJ implants have not only become a modern medical nightmare but a legal and political boondoggle as well.

 

OUTLINE (Outline data not available at time of printing)

 

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Joel Butler, Ph.D., Dewey, Oklahoma and

Susan Franks, Ph.D., University of North Texas, Ft. Worth, Texas

 

SILICONE BREAST IMPLANTS: THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS, PSYCHOLOGICAL/PHYSIOLOGICAL

 

The purpose of this study was to access the affects of silicone breast implants on objective measures of environmental illness. Twenty subjects who had implants removed after a varying number of years of use were evaluated for environmental/psychological symptom patterns. Physical measures along with the comprehensive neuropsychological screen (CNS) and the clinical/environmental differential analysis (CEDA) were administered to all subjects. Results are clearly indicative of environmental illness.

 

OUTLINE - Goals and objectives:

 

The goal was to determine if these breast implant patients could be classified as environmentally ill patients. The objective was to determine the extent of environmental symptom formation and neurocognitive damage.

 

Conclusions of what is to be learned:

 

Results are clearly indicative of environmental illness.

 

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Walter J. Crinnion N.D. -- Northwest Healing Arts Center

 

BOTANICAL MEDICINES USED TO ALTER LIVER FUNCTION IN CASES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICITY

 

This talk will cover three agents used regularly by the author in the treatment of environmentally poisoned individuals. Both the historical uses and the current scientific research on these botanical agents will be reviewed. Recommendations for use will also be provided.

 

Silybum marianum (Milk Thistle) Historically used for curing jaundice, biliary derangements, and to increase lactation. Silybum exerts potent antioxidant activity in the liver (greater that Vit. E) preventing hepatic destruction and enhancing liver function. It prevents hepatic depletion of GSH and can increase hepatic GSH by 35% over controls. It effectively prevents hepatic damage from Amanita phalloides and CCL4.

 

Cucurmin (Tumeric) The yellow pigment of tumeric provides potent anti-inflammatory action. In addition, it shows hepatoprotection similar to that of silybum marianum against CC14 and glactosamine-induced injury. It=s anti-oxidant activity is comparable to vitamins C and E, as well as BHA and BHT. It=s other uses include cancer prevention, and cancer treatment adjunct, anti-oxidant support, atherosclerosis, liver disorders gallstone and IBS.

 

Quercitin The most active of the 660+ bioflavonoids present in fruits and vegetables. The normal daily diet includes 50 mg of Quercitin. Many common medicinal plants owe much of their activity to their high quercitin content (including Crataegus oxycant, Gingko biloba, etc.). It exerts a powerful anti-inflammatory effect via a number of different systems. It stabilizes Mast cells (anti-histamine), inhibits Hyaluronidase, has anti-oxidant action and effects the eicosanoid metabolism. It also shows anti-viral activity, inhibition of aldose reductase and inhibits tumor production.

 

GOALS AND OBJECTIVE

 

Review the historical use and current research on Silybum marianum (Milk Thistle), Cucurmin (Tumeric), and Quercitin.

 

By the end of the talk participants will:

 

1. Know the hepatic functions effected by these agents

2. Know the indications and contraindications for use.

3. Understand how these agents will fit in treatment protocols for environmentally ill persons.

4. Understand the controversy over Quercitin=s safety.

5. Know which types of botanical preparations to utilize, should they choose to do so.

6. Recognize the abundance of valid research that is currently available in the area of phytomedicinals.

 

OUTLINE

 

Introduction

a. Brief overview of botanical medicines

b. Preview of the three to be presented

 

Silybum Mar.

a. Historical uses

b. Current research

1. Antioxidant capabilities

2. Hepatoprotection

3. Alteration of hepatic function

c. Application in Environmental practice

 

Cucurmin

a. Historical uses

b. Current research

1. General effects

2. Hepatic effects

c. Application in Environmental practice

 

Quercitin

a. Origins and biochemical composition

b. Historical use

c. Current research

1. Anti-inflammatory activity

2. Anti-oxidant activity

3. Anti-histamine activity

4. Other actions

d. Tumor promotion vs. tumor protection

1. Ames controversy

e. Application in Environmental practice

 

CONCLUSION

 

Certain botanical agents have shown an ability to greatly increase the antioxidant activity in certain body organs. Such agents greatly enhance protection of those tissue from oxidative harm, improve healing to such organs when damaged, and enhance daily function of those organs. Three such agents (Silybum marianum, Cucurmin, and Quercitin) were reviewed. These agents are readily available, effective, and safe for use in a majority of environmentally challenged individuals. They provide hepatoprotection via a variety of mechanisms. Quercitin also reduces the release of histamine in the GI tract which contributes to Aleaky gut@.

 

REFERENCES

Hikino H., et al: Antihepatotoxic actions of flavanolignans from Silybum marianum fruits.

Planta Medica 50:248-50, 1984

 

Wagner H: Plant constituents with antihepatotoxic activity. Natural products as Medicinal Agents. Beal JL and Reinhard E (eds) Hippokrates-Verlag, Stuttgart, 1981

 

Vogel G., et al: Protection against Amanita phalloides intoxication in beagles. Toxicol Appl. Pharm 73:355-62, 1984

 

Desplaces A, et al: The effects of silymarin on experimental phalloidin poisoning Arzneim-Forsch, 25:89-96, 1975

Vogel G, et al: Studies on pharmacodynamics, site and mechanism of action of silymarin, the antihepatotoxic principle from Silybum marianum. Gaert. Arzneim-Forsch 25:179-85, 1975

 

Sarre H: Experience in the treatment of chronic hepatopathies with silymarin.

Arzneim-Forsch 21: 1209-12, 1971

 

Fiebrich F and Koch H: Silymarin, an inhibitor of lipoxygenase. Experentia 35:148-50, 1979

 

Fiebrich F and Koch H: Silymarin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase.Experentia 35:150-2, 1979

 

Schopen RD and Lange OK: Therapy of hepatoses. Therapeutic use of silymarin.

Med Welt 21:691-8, 1970

 

Sarre H: Experience in the treatment of chronic hepatopathies with silymarin. Arzneim-Forsch 21:12090-12, 1971

 

Canini F, et al: Use of silymarin in the treatment of alcoholic hepatic steatosis.

Clin Ter 114:307-14, 1985

 

Salmi HA and Sarna S: Effect of silymarin on chemical functional, and morphological alteration of the liver. A double-blind controlled study. Scand J. Gastroenterol 17:417-21, 1982

 

Boari C, et al: Occupational toxic liver diseases. Therapeutic effects of silymarin.

Min Med 72:2679-88

 

Havsteen B: Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biochem Pharmacol 32:1141-8, 1983

 

Middleton E and Drzewiedi G: Flavonoid inhibition of human basophil histamine release stimulated by various agents. Biochem Pharmacol 33:3333-8, 1984

 

Amell M, et al: Inhibition of mast cell histamine release by flavonoids and bioflavonoids. Planta Medica 51:16-20, 1985

 

Yoshimoto T. et al: Flavonoids: Potent inhibitors of arachidonate 5-lipoxgenase Biochem Biophys ARes Common 116:612-8, 1983

 

Varma SD, et al: Diabetic cataracts and flavonoids, Science 195:87-9, 1977

 

Pamakcu AM, et al: Quercitin, a rat intestinal and bladder carcinogen present in bracken fern. Cancer Res 40:3468-3472, 1980

 

Nishino H, et al: Role of flavonoids in suppressing the enhancement of phospholipid metabolism by tumor promoters. Cancer letters 21:1-8, 1983

 

Nishino H, et al: Interaction between quercitin and Ca2+-calmodulin complex: Possible mechanism for anti-tumor promotins action of the flavonoid. Gann 74:311-6, 1984

 

 

Chandra D and Gupta S: Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of volatile oil of curcuma longa. Ind J Med Res 60:138-42, 1972

 

Arora R, et al: Anti-inflammatory studies on curcuma longs. Ind J Med Res 59:1289-95, 1971

 

Scrimal R and Dhawan B: Pharmacology of diferuloyl methane (curcumin), a non-steroidal lanti-inflammatory agent. J. Pharm Pharmac 25:447-52, 1973

 

Mukhapadhyay A, et al: Anti-inflammatory and irritant activities of curcumin analogues in rats. Agents Actions 12:508-15, 1982

 

Ghatak N and Basu N: Sodium curcuminate as an effective anti-inflammatory agent. Ind J Exp Biol 10:235-6, 1972

 

Kiso Y, et al: Antihepatotoxic principles of curcuma longs rhizomes. Plant Med 49:185-7, 1983

 

Shankar TNB, et al: Toxicity studies on tumeric (curcuma longa): Acute toxicity studies in rats, guinea pigs & monkeys. Ind J Exp Biol 18:73-5, 1980.

 

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DUFFARD, Ricardo, Ph.D. and EVANGELISTA de DUFFARD, Ana Maria, Ph.D.

Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental. Facultad de Cs. Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas. Universidad Nacional Rosario. Suipacha 531. Rosario (2000) Argentina

 

ALTERED BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES EN 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID TREATED RATS

 

Chlorophenoxyacetic herbicides are chemical compounds with physiological properties similar to natural plant hormones and have been used as common weed killers for more than forty years. Because of the efficiency and economy, the phenoxyherbicides remain essential throughout the world for agricultural uses. Another related compounds as clofibrate, fenofibrate etc., are used as hypolipidemic drugs. Since behavioral methods are being used to detect deleterious effects of environmental chemicals on the Nervous Systems of animals, they are good indicators of subtle toxic effects of drugs. These studies examined whether the behavior of rats would be differentially affected by a sublethal dose of 2,4-D administered in food for a short time during different physiological states and if a challenge could reveal otherwise hidden neurotoxicant-induced damage.

 

Dams treated during pregnancy exhibited impairments of open field (OF) activity and rotarod performance (RP). Adults intact male rats show depressed spontaneous OF activity, acquisition of conditioned avoidance responses (CARs) and RP. If well castration produced altered behaviors that were reversed by exogenous testosterone in gonadectomized rats. 2,4-D prevented the reversal of the effect of testosterone on the influence of castration on behavior if given concomitantly with testosterone. However when the 2,4-D treatment started seven days after testosterone the 2,4-D effects on OF, RP and active avoidance learning behaviors were reinstated. Thus, testosterone appears to be important for causing the toxic effects of 2,4-D in rats. On another way, our experiments with chemical challenges confirm the concept that a challenge to a system may overcome compensatory mechanisms and thereby reveal otherwise hidden neurotoxicant-induced damage by environmental chemicals.

Outline - Outline data not available at time of printing.

 

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Ricardo Duffard, Ph.D. and Evangelista de Duffard, Ana Maria, Ph.D.

Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental. Facultad de Cs. Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional Rosario. Suipacha 531, Rosario 2000, Argentina

 

NEUROTRANSMITTER CHANGES IN 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID EXPOSED RATS

 

Phenoxy herbicides constitute a family of compounds used to control broad leaf weeds. These compounds are extensively used in Argentina and other parts of the world, and they were considered relatively non-toxic for man and animals until few years ago. However, the modern literature shows that 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is toxic both for animals and humans.

 

Maternal exposure to environmental chemicals has increased and fetuses as well as neonates may be at greater risk than adults. There is great concern that exposure to Phenoxy herbicides would imply toxicological risk since teratogenic and embryo toxic effects were observed in several animal species as it was demonstrated by our and others laboratories.

 

5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is an indolamine widely distributed in mammalian systems. It acts as a neurotransmitter in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and plays an important role in the psychic process and in the regulation of many brain functions. Considerable biochemical evidence links serotoninergic mechanism to the regulation of diverse autonomic functions like sleep, body temperature and neuroendocrine mechanism. Serotoninergic neurons are also known to be involved in animal behavior.

 

The present studies were designed to provide information on the effects of 2,4-D on serotoninergic systems in the brain of developing and adult rats.

 

Two different effects on serotoninergic system were detected: a transient if 2,4-D was given to adult rats in a short period of time and a permanent effect if the herbicide was supplied during pre-- and post birth period. However, in utero exposed but lactationally cross-fostered rat pups were not affected, suggesting that prenatal exposure did not have any influence on the postnatal status of the neurotransmitter(s). We will be also able to demonstrate a significant increase in size and density of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in nucleus raphe dorsalis and median raphe nucleus of 25 day-old pups exposed to 2,4-D through mother=s milk.

 

Outline -- Outline data not available at time of printing.

 

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DUFFARD, Ricardo, Ph.D. and EVANGELISTA de DUFFARD, Ana Maria, Ph.D.

Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental. Facultad de Cs. Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas. Universidad Nacional Rosario. Suipacha 531. Rosario (2000) Argentina

 

MUSCLE ALTERATIONS AND NEUROTOXICITY INDUCED BY 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID

 

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), its esters and its salts constitute a widely used family of herbicides they are organic chemicals developed in the mid-1940's as herbicide for the control of broad leaf weeds. Taking into account the importance of knowing the fate in the environment and the toxicological effects of herbicides on living organisms, we demonstrated that external application of 2,4-D butyl ester (3mg/egg) on fertile hen eggs on day 0, 5 or 10 of incubation resulted in a 40-60% of mortality. Chicks hatched from these treated eggs exhibited postural and motor dysfunctions and other alterations as hypomyelination. Myelin chemical alterations were changes in the chemical composition implicate alterations in the intrinsic properties of this membrane.

 

We be also able to demonstrated that electromyography revealed muscular weakness, prolonged motor distal latency and miotonia. Altered biochemical and chemical composition of leg and complexus muscles of one day-old chicks were determined. A remarkable increase of unsaturated free fatty acid (UFFA) was observed. Calcium uptake into muscle was increased altering its homeostasis. These results led to a hypothesis based on Calcium permeability alterations and UFFA and triglycerides accumulation because they could not be metabolized in the mitochondria and these may be key factors in the 2,4-D toxic action in muscle and other tissues during embryonic development.

 

Outline -- Outline data not available at time of printing.

 

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S. Boyd Eaton, MD

Emory University School of Medicine

 

PALEOLITHIC NUTRITION

 

The nutrition of Stone Agers remains pertinent in the present because we are still, genetically, almost identical to our individual ancestors who lived in the late Paleolithic, before the adoption of agriculture, 10,000 years ago. Our current biochemical and physiological requirements are determined by genes originally selected for stone age circumstances, not those operative today.

 

Paleoanthropologists learn about past diet and nutrition by studying the living sites of our remote ancestors where the bones of game animals they ate are preserved and where sophisticated microscopic analyses can even pinpoint many of the plant foods which were used. Scientists also evaluate our ancestors own skeletal remains from which radioisotopic techniques can reveal the relative amounts of meat and vegetable foods in their diets. In addition, physical anthropologists have carefully categorized the subsistence patterns of hunting and gathering peoples who have managed to survive in the present century. These groups, also called foragers, inhabit a variety of geographical regions from the arctic to the equator and from deserts to rain forests. Their diets naturally vary, but nevertheless exhibit defining central tendencies. Furthermore, the nutritional properties of the game animals, fruits, roots and other vegetable foods they consume must be closely representative of those eaten by humans throughout our evolutionary past.

 

By using evidence of this nature it is possible to reconstruct the essentials of our ancestral dietary pattern. We can generalize about its nature almost as accurately as we can about the Aaverage@ American=s nutrition. Comparison between the two, what we eat currently contrasted with what our remote ancestors did, reveals striking and potentially important differences, some of which challenge principles long held by today=s conventional nutritionists.

 

Outline

 

I. Paleolithic Nutrition

1 Goals/Objectives -- Define nature and importance of pre-agricultural human nutrition.

2. Abstract - see abstract

3. What is to be learned? The nature and current relevance of pre-agricultural human nutrition.

4. References

Eaton SB, Konner M. Paleolithic nutrition. A consideration of its nature and current implications N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 283-9.

 

Eaton SB, Fibre intake in prehistoric times. In: Leeds AR, ed. Dietary fibre perspectives. Reviews and bibliography. 2. London: John Libbey. 1990: 27-40.

 

Eaton SB, Nelson DA. Calcium in evolutionary perspective. Am J. Clin Nutr 1991; 54: 281S-7S

 

Eaton SB. Humans, lipids and evolution. Lipids 1992; 27: 814-20

 

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S. Boyd Eaton, MD

Emory University School of Medicine

 

EVOLUTION AND THE RDAS

 

For decades Americans were told of four essential food groups: meat and fish, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and cereal grains. However, our ancestral line evolved over millions of years while utilizing just two of these: after infancy they had no dairy products and they rarely consumed foods based on grains. In contrast to today's prevailing conventional wisdom paleolithic humans ate a great deal of red meat, perhaps up to a third of their daily energy intake. But their meat was wild game with nutritional properties much different from current commercial meat. Their vegetable foods provided about 100 grams of fiber daily (we consume about 20 grams or less). They had little refined sugar, (only that from honey) and no finely milled flour.

 

In contrast to what is commonly thought, our pre-agricultural ancestors were tall; they had physically active lives hence their caloric needs were substantial. Their foods were typically low in energy, but high in micronutrient content so in meeting their energy needs they obtained more vitamins and minerals than we do. For a variety of micronutrient Paleolithic intake ranged from one and a half to five times that commonly obtained by current Americans. Because of their high meat diets iron intake was proportionately even higher, but sodium consumption was low, a fraction of ours; only 10% of American salt intake is intrinsic to the foods we eat.

 

The natural nutritional paradigm of human ancestral experience affords insight regarding the recommendations of today's nutritionists. This presentation reveals both gratifying parallels and potentially instructive points of disagreement.

 

Outline

 

II. Evolution and the RDA's

 

1 Goals/Objectives -- Compare ancestral and current human nutritional patterns

2. Abstract - see abstract

3. What is to be learned? Similarities and differences between past and current human nutrition.

4. References

Eaton SB, Konner M., Shostak M. Stone Agers in the fast lane: chronic degenerative diseases in evolutionary perspective. Am J Med 1988; 84: 739-49

 

Eaton SB, Eaton SB, Konner M. Evolution and currently recommended dietary allowances, Parallels and paradoxes N Engl J Med 1995: under review for publication.

 

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Ronald Finn, MD, FRCP Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, England

 

FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES OF CANCER

 

Cancer is becoming more common and therapeutic advances have been modest.

 

There are marked geographical variations in the prevalence of most common cancers indicating the importance of environmental factors; and genetic predisposition may only operate in the presence of the appropriate environmental trigger. These considerations suggest that the most promising strategy to control the growing cancer problem is to attempt to identify the various environmental triggers and to devise preventive measures based on environmental modifications.

 

Diet is a common environmental cause of cancer and possible mechanisms include mycotoxin, high fat content, low fibre, lack of antioxidants and pesticides. Thus the incidence of breast cancer in Israel fell after reduction in the use of various agricultural chemicals.

 

Multiple myeloma is more common in farming areas suggesting that agricultural chemicals might cause marrow damage leading to myeloma. We have, therefore, investigated the hypothesis that long term multiple drug therapy might also predispose to myeloma.

 

Drug intake data is available in the UK from computerized general practitioner records, and the drug intake was recorded for five years prior to diagnosis in 28 myeloma cases and compared with 120 random age matched controls. The results of this survey support the hypothesis that multiple drug therapy predisposes to myeloma.

 

Ronald Finn, MD, FRCP Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, England

 

Outline

 

The general conclusion is reached that cancer is often an Environmental Disease, and future control will depend on identification of the relevant environmental triggers.

 

Eriksson, M., Karlsson, M. AOccupational and other environmental factors and multiple myeloma: a population based cased-control study. Brit. J. Industrial Medicine (1992) 49: 95-103

 

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Berti Griffiths, Ph.D., Environmental Health Center - Dallas, Dallas, Texas and Baolian Liu, MD, Ph.D., Shanxi Medical College, Shanxi, China

 

CELL CYCLES AS A MEASUREMENT FOR CELL FUNCTION IN CHEMICALLY SENSITIVE PATIENTS

 

By employing the technique of flow cytometry, DNA histograms can be established from human peripheral lymphocytes. These histograms portray the cell cycle profiles of individuals. When compared with normal profiles, the cell cycle of an individual is indicative of his/her immune status. An irregular cell cycle can be regulated therapeutically by a lysate, autogenous lymphocytic factor (ALF) obtained from the individual=s lymphocytes grown invitro.

 

Ongoing research gives insight of the mechanism(s) of cell cycle regulation and in resolving the underlying mechanism that control the progression of normal cells to malignancy.

 

Outline

 

Goals and objectives:

 

1. To establish a relationship between the normal cell cycle of human peripheral lymphocytes and the cell cycle of individuals that are compromised by varied environmental incitants. It is observed that the cell cycle profile of most environmentally ill individuals investigated differ significantly from controls.

2. To produce or lysate from cultured human peripheral lymphocytes, which upon therapeutic usage will regulate the cell cycle.

3. To apply results obtained to the treatment of not only environmentally sensitive individuals, but in general to individuals with immunodeficient syndromes.

 

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S. B. Hill. Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada H9X 3V9

 

AGRICULTURE'S ADDICTION TO CHEMICALS: TWELVE STEPS TO RECOVERY

 

For the individual, the starting point has to be an interest in reducing and giving up the addiction, and for most addicts this means overcoming the denial and looking at the situation more honestly and comprehensively than they have in the past. It means reconnecting with one=s core values, acknowledging one=s self worth, empowering oneself to act in ways that are consistent with one=s values, and asking for help. This often demands a shift in world views and paradigms, developing new visions and goals, learning new information and skills, using resources differently, using and developing more appropriate technologies, and getting the necessary institutional supports to implement the implied changes. Such change is somewhat similar to a spiritual awakening or religious conversion. For institutions and governments such changes are more difficult to make because they are locked into agreements and procedures that have much greater ramifications in the face of a change in direction. Our current emphasis on maximizing agricultural output, global markets and the use of food as a starting point for the production of Aneofood@ is anti-ecological and contrary to the goals of nourishment. To change the institutional structures to support agriculture as it abandons its addiction to chemicals will require an extensive shift in values and world views among the population as a whole.

 

Outline - Outline information not available at time of printing.

 

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S. B. Hill. Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada H9X 3V9

 

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AND FOOD QUALITY.

 

Agriculture has evolved from producing food for nourishment (subsistence) to producing commodities for profit. To increase profits, certain crops have been favored over others, and to maximize yield, all the forces of chemistry, physics, biology and technology have been applied to create the controlled (biologically simplified) conditions in which predictable levels of production can be achieved. Because of this, agriculture is now associated with large machinery, extensive irrigation and drainage schemes, heavy dependence on fertilizers and pesticides, monocultures, hybrids and now genetically engineered cultivars; and the stores are filled with foods that have traveled thousands of miles and Aneofoods@ that have been fabricated by the processing industry. By removing nutrients, adding toxins and changing the fundamental nature of food the above developments have predictably had negative effects on food quality. Unless we change the goals of agriculture to place nourishment, human health and well being at the top of the list, no amount of tinkering will be able to significantly improve the present situation. What is required is not better or more science, technology and even systems of food handling, but a fundamental evolution in human values.

 

Outline - Outline information not available at time of printing.

 

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Alfred R. Johnson, D.O., Environmental Health Center - Dallas, Dallas, Texas

 

Abstract information not available at time of printing.

 

Outline - Outline information not available at time of printing.

 

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Felixtina E. Jonsyn

University of Sierra Leone

NJala University College

P M Bag, Freetown

Sierra Leone West Africa

 

EVIDENCE OF AN EARLY EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS AND OTHER TOXIC COMPOUNDS BY NEONATES IN SIERRA LEONE

 

A High Performance Liquid Chromatographic examination of 64 cord blood and eight maternal blood samples obtained during delivery, revealed the presence of aflatoxins in 91% and 75%, respectively. Ochratoxin A was also detected in 25% and 13% of cord and maternal blood samples, respectively.

 

The possible implication of these mycotoxins in the recorded cases of low birth weight, high infant morbidity and mortality rate and the low life span of the average Sierra Leonean is discussed.

 

Felixtina E. Jonsyn, M.D., University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone, West Africa

 

OUTLINE

 

EVIDENCE OF AN EARLY EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS AND OTHER TOXIC COMPOUNDS BY NEONATES IN SIERRA LEONE

 

1 To determine a) How early infants exposed to mycotoxins

b) The levels of such exposure

c) The implication of such mycotoxin exposure on the health of these infants.

2 See abstract

3 The high and early exposure rate to mycotoxins could be responsible for the high infant mortality rate in Sierra Leone.

 

The low life span (42 years) of the average Sierra Leone could be attributed to mycotoxin induced diseases.

 

4. Jonsyn, F.E., Maxwell, S.M. and Hendrickse, R.G. (1995) Human foetal exposure to Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxins. IN PRESS ANN. OF TROP. PAEDS.

 

UNICEF (1989)The children and women in Sierra Leone: An analysis of their situation 1:1-96

 

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Felixtina E. Jonsyn University of Sierra Leone NJala University College

P M Bag, Freetown

Sierra Leone West Africa

 

AFLATOXINS AND OCHRATOXINS INTAKE BY INFANTS IN SIERRA LEONE: POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON THE GENERAL HEALTH OF THESE CHILDREN.

 

Earlier studies in Sierra Leone have indicated that some local foodstuffs were contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and G1, Ochratoxins A (OTA) and B (OTB). Recent examination of biological specimens of infants, not only substantiated these earlier work but also revealed a high to moderate contamination rate of these specimen by aflatoxins and ochratoxins. Urine samples contained 100% aflatoxins, 24% OTA and 20% OTB. Serum samples contained 94% aflatoxins, 33% OTA and 23% OTB. In stool specimens, 94% aflatoxins, 33% OTA and 58% OTB were detected. The substance 4-hydroxy ochratoxin A (4R-OTA) a metabolite of OTA, was for the first time discovered in human samples. Urine and stool specimens of these infants contained 45% and 46% 4R-OTA, respectively.

 

The major source of mycotoxin contamination is breast milk which has been shown to contain 88% aflatoxins and 35% OTA.

 

Sierra Leone has a high infant mortality rate and therefore it is expedient to examine the possible contributory role of such high mycotoxin exposure on these infants.

 

Felixtina E. Jonsyn, M.D., University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone, West Africa

 

OUTLINE

 

AFLATOXINS AND OCHRATOXINS INTAKE BY INFANTS IN SIERRA LEONE: POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON THE GENERAL HEALTH OF THESE CHILDREN.

 

1 To determine a) Levels of mycotoxin injected by infants through examination of their body fluids

b) The source of such exposure i.e. breast milk and weaning foods

c) To look for tell tale symptoms of mycotoxin effect on these children

 

2 See abstract

 

  1. The exposure rate to aflatoxins is much higher than ochratoxins but levels of both toxins detected in various body
  2. fluids were frequently higher than permitted levels in animal feed in developed countries.

     

    Breast milk is the main source of mycotoxin exposure. Concentration levels as high as 372ng/ml aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and 337ng/ml OTA have been recorded.

     

    AFBI and OTA are well known immunosuppressants. The high mortality rate of infants due to infectious diseases like measles, etc. could therefore be attributed to the effect of these mycotoxins on their already compromised immune system.

     

  3. Jonsyn, F.E. and Maxwell, S.M. (1993) Detection of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in food samples from Sierra

Leone. Collogue INSERM Vol. 231 sup. issue

 

Jonsyn, F.E. and Maxwell, S.M. and Hendrickse, R.G. (1995) Ochratoxins and Aflatoxins in breast milk samples from Sierra Leone. IN PRESS MYCOPATHOLOGIA

 

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Pomri J. Ellis and Felixtina E. Jonsyn University of Sierra Leone

NJala University College

P M Bag, Freetown

Sierra Leone

 

THE NEED TO EXPLORE THE PRESENCE OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS AND April 1, 1999ANTICANCER AGENTS IN FOODSTUFFS FROM SIERRA LEONE.

 

Flavonoids exist abundantly in certain vegetables and fruits that are dietary components of the average Sierra Leonean, however, data on the quantitative evaluation of these flavonoids i.e. flavonols, e.g. quercitin, kaempferols etc. in vivo and in vitro, has been well investigated. The protective effects of the consumption of vegetables and fruits on certain forms if cancer has also been studied. Palm oil, which is a daily dietary component of Sierra Leoneans, contains an antioxidant - alpha - retinol known to repress the acton of aflatoxin B1 on the liver of experimental animals.

 

There is a high contamination index by mycotoxins of the common foodstuffs in Sierra Leone, therefore the quantitative evaluation of the flavonoid content of the common vegetables and fruits of Sierra Leone is advocated.

 

Felixtina E. Jonsyn, M.D., University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone, West Africa

 

THE NEED TO EXPLORE THE PRESENCE OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS AND ANTICANCER AGENTS IN FOODSTUFFS FROM SIERRA LEONE.

 

1. To examine common vegetables and fruits for the presence of antioxidants and anticancer agents.

 

To promote the widespread use of foodstuff found to be abundantly rich in these compounds, especially in the preparation in baby and weaning food.

 

2. See abstract.

 

3. Palm oil which is widely consumed in Sierra Leone contains an antioxidant alpha-retinol.

 

Alpha-retinol is know to ameliorate the effect of aflatoxin B1 induced liver injury on experimental animals.

 

Current research have elucidated the prepondence of antioxidants in certain fruits and vegetables.

 

Sierra Leoneans are highly exposed to mycotoxins, therefore the elucidation and promotion of foodstuffs with antioxidants properties is imperative.

 

4. Jonsyn, F.E. (1994) Aflatoxins and Ochratoxins: An investigation of their presence in body fluids of children and mothers in Sierra Leone. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Liverpool, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine UK

 

Hertog, M.G.L., Hollman, P.C.H. and Katan, M.B. (1992) Contents of Potentially Anticarcinogenic Flavonoids of 28 vegetables and 9 fruits commonly consumed in the Netherlands. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40: 2379-2383

 

Newberne, P.M. and Rogers, A.E. (1976) Nutritional modulation of carcinogenesis. In: Magee Fundamentals in cancer prevention. University of Tokyo Press. Tokyo, University Park Press. Baltimore.

 

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Mary Matossian University of Maryland at College Park

 

EFFECTS OF NATURAL FUNGAL TOXINS ON FERTILITY AND MORTALITY IN CONNECTICUT FROM 1660 TO 1900

 

The goals of this investigation were 1) to determine how much variance in mycotoxins in grain influenced fertility and mortality and 2) to identify forces for change in the nineteenth century. During 1660-1900 there was scant scientific knowledge of plant and human health or of proper grain storage technology; nor was there federal regulation of grain markets.

 

It was assumed that no vestiges of mycotoxins from this period were in existence. The logic of the investigation was that if A predicts B, and B predicts C, then A predicts C, where

 

A = variance in staple starch production

B = variance in amount of fertility suppressant and immune suppressant mycotoxins in grain

C = variance in crude birth rate and crude death rate (number of births (deaths) per thousand population).

 

The method was to assemble existing historical statistics and to create new statistics where none existed with measurements drawn from historical documents. The material was processed to obtain multiple regression coefficients.

 

Mary Matossian, Ph.D., University of Maryland at College Park, Bethesda, Maryland

 

Conclusions:

 

1) So long as diet was not delocalized, using various combinations of diet, climate, and economic variables it was possible to predict about 80% of the variance in fertility and 64% of the variance in mortality. The latter figure probably was an under-estimation, actually representing the deaths of propertied males (about one-third of all males).

 

2) Since human ecology varied not only by county but also by townships, I found no general formula that applied to all.

 

3) The most important forces for change in the nineteenth century were:

a. The substitution of potatoes for grain, especially corn.

b. The building of turnpikes, canals, and railroads which served to delocalize diets.

c. Government regulation of food markets.

 

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William J. Meggs, M.D., Ph.D.

East Carolina University

 

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY

 

A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of chemical sensitivity in a general population. A random digit-dial regional telephone survey was conducted from 05/14/93 to 09/10/93, with digital data entry and analysis. The error was "4%. Of the 1,446 households contacted, 1,027 (71%) participated. For comparison purposes, respondents were also asked about allergies. Most common symptoms of chemical sensitivity were nausea, headache, and eye irritation, with thirty-five per cent of these individuals reporting symptoms once a week or greater, while 53% reported symptoms once a month or less. Allergies were reported by 35% of individuals. Common symptoms were runny or stuffy nose, eye irritation, sinus congestion or pain and headache. Of the total population, 5.3% reported allergic symptoms daily. Chemical sensitivity was reported by 33% of individuals, with 3.9% reporting daily symptoms. Both allergy and sensitivity to chemical irritants were more common among women. Both conditions were widely distributed among racial, income and educational groups. Tree pollen and dust were the most common allergens cited, while perfumes, pesticides, and cigarette smoke were the most common chemicals cited. Allergy and chemical sensitivity were reported by 16.9% of the population, allergy without sensitivity to chemical irritants in 18.2%, sensitivity to chemical irritants without allergy in 16.0%, and neither condition in 48.9%. The scientific basis for allergy has been investigated in numerous studies, but the scientific basis for sensitivity to chemical irritants has rarely been studied. If the prevalence of sensitivity to chemical irritants is, in fact, equivalent to that of allergy, as was found in this study, then support for the scientific investigation of the basis for chemical sensitivity is justified.

 

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY

 

1. Goals and Objectives

 

To discuss the prevalence of chemical sensitivity.

To compare the prevalence of chemical sensitivity to the prevalence of allergy.

To present demographics of individuals suffering from allergy and chemical sensitivity.

 

2. Outline of talk/abstract.

 

Background

Other studies of prevalence of chemical sensitivity

Methods

Random digit dial telephone survey

Results

Prevalence of chemical sensitivity and allergy

Demographics of chemical sensitivity and allergy

Types of symptoms reported

Substances producing symptoms

Conclusions

The prevalence of allergy (35%) and chemical sensitivity (33%) are comparable.

Both disorders affect women more than men.

All economic, racial, and income groups are affected by both disorders.

Support for further investigations of chemical sensitivity, given its prevalence, is needed.

References

 

Bell IR, Schwartz GE, Peterson JM, Amend D. self-reported illness from chemical odors in young adults without clinical syndromes or occupational exposures. Arch Environ Health 1993; 48:6-13

 

Bell IR, Schwartz GE, Peterson JM, Symptoms and personality profiles of young adults from a college student population with self-reported illness from foods and chemicals. Jour Amer College of Nutrition 1993 12:693-702

 

Meggs WJ, Dunn KA, Goodman PE, and Davidoff AL. Prevalence of allergy and chemical sensitivity in a general population. (In review).

 

US Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor air quality and work environment study. Vol 4, 21-M-3004, June 1991, pp 32-33.

 

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William J. Meggs, M.D., Ph.D.

East Carolina University

 

NEUROGENIC SWITCHING: SHIFTING THE SITE OF INFLAMMATION

 

Neurogenic switching is proposed as a hypothetical mechanism by which a stimulus at one site can lead to inflammation at a distant site. Neurogenic inflammation occurs when substance P and other neuropeptides released from sensory neurons produce an inflammatory response, while immunogenic inflammation results from the binding of antigen to antibody or leukocyte receptors. There is a crossover mechanism between these two forms of inflammation. Neurogenic switching is proposed to result when a sensory impulse from a site of activation is rerouted via the central nervous system to a distant location, to produce neurogenic inflammation at the second location. Neurogenic switching is a possible explanation for systemic anaphylaxis, in which inoculation of the skin or gut with antigen produces systemic symptoms involving the respiratory and circulatory systems, and an experimental model of anaphylaxis is consistent with this hypothesis. Food allergy inducing asthma, urticaria, arthritis, and fibromyalgia are other possible examples of neurogenic switching. Neurogenic switching provides a mechanism to explain how allergens, infections, irritants, and possibly emotional stress can exacerbate conditions such as migraine, asthma and arthritis. Since neurogenic inflammation is known to be triggered by chemical exposures, it may play a role in the sick building syndrome and in chemical sensitivities. Then neurogenic switching would explain how the respiratory irritants lead to symptoms at other sites in these disorders.

 

 

William J. Meggs, M.D., Ph.D.

East Carolina University

 

NEUROGENIC SWITCHING: SHIFTING THE SITE OF INFLAMMATION

 

1. Goals and Objectives

 

To give examples of chemical and allergic stimuli that cause inflammation at sites other than the site of inoculation.

To present a mechanism to explain how the site of inflammation can be switched in allergy and chemical sensitivity.

 

2. Outline of talk/abstract

 

A. Clinical examples of switching of the site of inflammation in allergy and chemical sensitivity.

B. Review of the mechanism of allergy

C. Review of the mechanism of chemical sensitivity

D. Review of the role of the nervous system in allergy and chemical sensitivity

E. Neurogenic switching as a mechanism by which a stimulus at one site can lead to inflammation at a distant site.

 

3. Conclusion of what is to be learned:

 

Neurogenic switching is results when a sensory impulse from a site of activation is rerouted via the central nervous system to a distant location, to produce neurogenic inflammation at the second location. Neurogenic switching can explanation systemic anaphylaxis, and food allergy inducing asthma, urticaria, arthritis, and fibromyalgia. Neurogenic switching provides a mechanism to explain how allergens, infections, irritants, and possibly emotional stress can exacerbate conditions such as migraine, asthma and arthritis. It may play a role in the sick building syndrome and in chemical sensitivities. Then neurogenic switching would explain how the respiratory irritants lead to symptoms at other sites in these disorders.

 

4. References:

 

Ashford NA and Miller CS. Chemical Exposures: Low Levels and High Stakes. Van Norstrand Rhinehold. New York, 1991. pp 54-58

 

Meggs WJ. Neurogenic Switching: A hypothetisis to explain how a stimulus at one site can produce inflammation at a distant site. Environ Health Perspectives 1995 (in press).

 

Meggs WJ. Neurogenic inflammation and sensitivity to environmental chemicals. Environ Health Perspectives 1993; 101:234-238

 

Nadel JA. Neutral endopeptidase modulates neurogenic inflammation. Eur Respir Jour 4:745-754 (1991)

 

Nielsen GD. Mechanisms of activation of the sensory irritant receptor by airborne chemicals. Critical reviews in toxicology 21:183-208 (1991)

 

Randolph TG. Human ecology and susceptibility to the chemical environment. C. C. Clark (1962)

 

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William J. Meggs, M.D., Ph.D.

East Carolina University

 

ALLERGY AND CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY

 

There are remarkable similarities between allergy and chemical sensitivity, and the two disorders may be more closely related than generally assumed. An allergic reaction occurs when proteins or hapten-protein complexes cross-link specific IgE on mast cells. The mast cells then degranulate, releasing vasoactive amines, chemotactic factors, and other mediators of inflammation. The resultant inflammation may affect numerous organs, sometimes at distant sites to the site of inoculation with antigen. Some individuals have a heightened sensitivity to environmental proteins, which is known to result from production of specific IgE to these proteins. In the airway, skin, and gastrointestinal tract, there are receptors for low-molecular weight chemicals on sensory nerves, and activation of these chemoreceptors causes the release of substance P and other mediators of neurogenic inflammation. Some individuals have a heightened sensitivity to chemicals, which may be due to a disordered regulation of neurogenic inflammation. Symptoms can sometimes occur at sites distant from the site of contact with chemicals. There is a cross over phenomena relating allergy and chemical sensitivity: histamine released from mast cells in an allergic reaction bind receptors on sensory nerve endings to provoke the release of substance P, and substance P binds receptors on mast cells to cause mast cell degranulation.

 

William J. Meggs, M.D., Ph.D.

East Carolina University

 

ALLERGY AND CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY

 

1. Goals and Objectives

 

To discuss the mechanisms of allergy and chemical sensitivity

To discuss the differences and similarities between allergy and chemical sensitivity

 

2. Outline of talk/abstract.

 

A. Similarities between allergy and chemical sensitivity

B. The mechanism of an allergic reactions

C. The mechanism of chemical sensitivity

D. The cross over network between allergy and chemical sensitivity

 

3. Conclusion of what is to be learned:

 

Both allergy and chemical sensitivity are triggered by xenobiiotics. In the case of allergy, proteins interact with specific antibody to trigger an inflammatory cascade. In the case of chemical sensitivity, chemicals interact with chemoreceptors on sensory nerves to trigger an inflammatory cascade. There is a cross over phenomena, in that one type of reaction can trigger the other.

 

4. References:

 

Ashford NA and Miller CS. Chemical Exposures: Low Levels and High Stakes. Van Norstrand Rhinehold. New York, 1991. pp 54-58

 

Brooks SM, Weiss MA, and Bernstein IL. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS): persistent asthma syndrome after high level irritant exposure Chest 88:376-384 (1985)

 

Lewis RM. Bidirectional regulatory circuit between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Year in immunology 4:241-252 (1989)

 

Meggs WJ. Neurogenic Switching: A hypothetisis to explain how a stimulus at one site can produce inflammation at a distant site. Environ Health Perspectives 1995 (in press).

 

Meggs WJ. Neurogenic inflammation and sensitivity to environmental chemicals. Environ Health Perspectives 1993: 101:234-238

 

Meggs WJ. Rhino laryngoscopic findings in the multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome. Archives Environ Health 48: 14-18, 1993

 

Meggs WJ. Cleveland C. H., Metzger, W. J. Larkin, E., and Albernaz, M. Reactive upper-airways dysfunction syndrome (RUDS): a form of chemical irritant rhinitis following an acute exposure. Jour Allergy Clin Immun 89:145 (1992)

 

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DIOXINS IN FOOD:

 

THE U.K. EXPERIENCE BY DR. JEAN MONRO AND DR. CHRIS HEARD

 

Dioxins and furans are ubiquitous environmental contaminants produced by combustion processes, such as incineration of waste, and various manufacturing and bleaching processes. Use of the defoliant Agent Orange during the Vietnam war and the accident at Seveso in Italy in 1976 brought this group of chemicals to the attention of the public.

 

The chemical group of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) includes a number of closely related compounds, including the furans or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Some of these compounds are profoundly toxic to animals.

 

2,3,7,8 - TCDD is considered the most toxic of the dioxins and has been most studied. A system of Toxic Equivalents allows the consideration of toxicity of mixtures by providing weighting factors, expressing toxicity of dioxins in terms of the equivalent amount of 2,3,7,8 -- TCDD. This, however, assumes no toxicological interaction between related compounds.

 

Environmental contamination has increased markedly since the advent of the petrochemical industries, through fires have always been a source of dioxins. Contamination of the environment occurs a result of deposition in soil, water and plants from combustion emissions, factory effluent, sewage and contaminated chemicals.

 

Being lipid-soluble, dioxins are more likely to be found in fatty foods, such as meat, fish and milk. The surfaces of plants may be contaminated, but they are free of most congeners, unless soil is not removed by adequate washing. Milk can also be contaminated by migration from carton material. Tea bags and coffee filters may also contribute to dietary intake of dioxins, as they are formed in the process of bleaching.

 

Government-commissioned estimates suggest a safe adult dietary intake of 2.0 pg TEQ/Kg.b.w.day. An Expert group of WHO/EURO has recommended a Total Daily Intake of 10 pg/Kg.b.w./day for TCDD. Breast-fed infants exceed this intake approximately ten-fold (100 pg TEQ/Kg.b.w./day), but the WHO recommends that benefits of breast-feeding outweigh toxic risk from dioxin intake.

 

Jean Monro, M. D., Breakspear Hospital, Hertfordshire, England

 

OUTLINE

 

Goals and objectives:

 

To present information concerning sources and toxicity of dioxins, and their distribution in foods, as detected by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Foods in 1991. Details of the explosion at the Coalite plant in North East Derbyshire, and its effects on locally produced food will also be presented.

 

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DIGESTIVE FUNCTION IN THE CHEMICALLY SENSITIVE PATIENT

by Dr. Christopher Heard and Dr. Jean Monro

 

Comprehensive digestive stool analysis and differential lactulose and mannitol absorption tests have been performed on chemically sensitive patients attending the Breakspear Hospital to investigate the association between MCS and food intolerance, vitamin/mineral deficiencies and detoxifying enzyme deficits, and a possible link to gastrointestinal dysfunction.

 

Of 72 patients, 39% had raised triglycerides and 15% low chymotrypsin (suggesting pancreatic insufficiency). pH was raised in 9.7%, possibly related to hypochlorhydria. 30.6% showed elevation of faecal cholesterol, indicating mucosal malabsorption, and total faecal fats were raised in 25%. 18.3% of patients had high levels of long chain fatty acids, again suggesting mucosal malabsorption. Short chain fatty acid ratios were disordered, indicating dysbiosis. Butyric acid, the main energy source for colonic epithelial cells was low in 5.6%. Bacterial flora was imbalanced in 82% of patients, and potential pathogens were isolated in 38.9%. Candida sp. was found in 39% of specimens.

 

Lactulose recovery was high in 44.2% and mannitol recovery high in 19.2% indicating raised intestinal permeability (Aleaky gut@). Mannitol recovery was low in 9.6% indicating malabsorption. Lactulose/mannitol ratio, a more sensitive indicator of raised intestinal permeability, was high in 78.8%.

 

Conclusion: Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity may also have features of GI dysfunction; raised intestinal permeability is a common feature in this group. The observed increased permeability may be the cause of the food sensitivity seen in MCS, or the result of food allergy, which can itself result in raised intestinal permeability.

 

Jean Monro, M. D., Breakspear Hospital, Hertfordshire, England

 

OUTLINE

 

Goals and objectives: To demonstrate the link between MCS and GI pathology, and to discuss whether this is a primary or secondary phenomenon.

 

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H. Müller-Mohnssen, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, GFR

 

TOXIC EFFECTS OF PYRETHROID-INSECTICIDES. Experimental investigations with animals have provided evidence in the early eighteenth, prior to mass-indoor-application, that pyrethroids are neurotoxic. They are membrane-poisons, of which is known, that they disturb - among other function -the nervous conduction not only of insects and other invertebrates, but also of vertebrates and, therefore, humans. Because of their deficient specificity, high effectiveness, irreversibility and accumulation of their effects as well as their persistence in the environment, many investigators predicted, that the mass-use of pyrethroids in the environment of humans, would lead to chronic health-impairments. Results of clinical investigations suggest, that the predictions have become reality and nessitate the discussion of causal-relationship between exposure and the exposed subject=s symptoms.

 

A causal relationship is to be assumed if 1. the exposure is documented (acute intoxication), or the substance can be demonstrated in the patient=s environment or his or her body (chronic intoxication),

2. other diseases or other causes for the complaints can be excluded, 3. a regular time interval is evident from the beginning of the exposure till the onset of symptoms (latency period for acute intoxication), or between the end of exposure and the decrease of complaints (chronic intoxication) 4. the clinical picture resembles that of a multitude of patients which have been exposed to the same chemical substance.

 

The clinical picture of pyrethroid intoxication is characterized by the following parameters: 1. complaint spectrum, 2, course of disease (1. and 2., described in another communication), 3. dosis-time relation of the latency period. Immediately after spray-missions pyrethroid room air concentrations were up to 500 ug/m3, after 1 hour 50 ug/m3, and 14 days later less than 0.1m3 ug/m3, till a constant value is attained, i.e. of 0,01 ug/m3 at a load of 500 mg/kg house dust for instance. Under these conditions textile fibers accumulate biocides from the room air, cotton fibers for instance up to 80 mg/kg. Excretory measurements have shown, that contaminated textiles in close contact with the skin have a higher impact on the whole body load than the contaminated room air. After 2 hour surfaces placed in the treated room are covered with 220 to 900 ug/m2, in case of cyfluthrin for instance, this value is reduced only slightly after 60 hours.

 

Latencies: 1. At single high-concentration exposure during self application by spraying or brushing, the latency amounts to 0-12 hours (acute intoxication). 2. At medium-concentration exposure, i.e. during electro-evaporator-application at distances smaller than 50 cm to the face, or if the treated room is entered and cleaned by the patient less than 3 days after spray missions the latency amounts to 2-6 days (subacute intoxication), 3. at low concentration-exposure during electro-evaporator-application at distances greater than 50 cm - corresponding to 2 ug/m3,-or if the pyrethroid-concentration in the house dust exceeds 10 mg/kg: months up to years (slow onset). Provided threshold dosis is exceeded, the latency thus increases with decreasing dose rate (dosis/time). Both, inhalative and dermal uptake have to be considered in every case.

 

Helmuth Müller-Mohnssen (Prof. Dr. med), D-85737 Ismaning (Munich), Wasserturnstr. 39 Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich. Title of communications: 1. Toxic effects of Pyrethroid-biocides, 2. Clinical series of patients with Pyrethroid-Intoxication. Educational background: Pathology, Physiology. Working fields: 1. Hydrodynamic mechanism involved in thrombogenesis and atherogenesis, 2. The electrophysical basis of impulse-generation performed by the excitable nerve fibre membrane.

 

OUTLINE

 

Outline information not available at time of printing.

 

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H. Müller-Mohnssen, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, GFR

 

CLINICAL SERIES OF PATIENTS WITH PYRETHROID-INTOXICATION. In the present investigation the complaints of 100 patients with suspicion of suffering from Pyrethroid-intoxication (PI) were recorded to get answers to the following questions: 1. Do the complaints of a majority of patients point to a similar clinical picture? 2. Does this picture show characteristics differentiating it from other diseases?

 

The results indicate that the characteristics of the PI do not consist in singular symptoms but in combinations and correlations of symptoms, i.e., of central-neurological with peripheral-and autonomic-neurological as well with characteristic immunological disturbances. Neurological symptoms consist in cerebro-organic dysfunctions, locomotory disorders reminiscent of multiple sclerosis or M. Parkinson, and sensory, motoric and vegetative polyneuropathy, leading, for instance, to cardiovascular regulatory disorders like sympathicotonia, orthostatic hypotonia. Non-neurological symptoms include immunosuppression with opportunistic infections, like candida albicans, most frequently of the alimentary tract, but also dermal and mucosal swelling, lichen-rubber-like efflorescences, loss of hair, conjunctivitis. Other symptoms are: inhibition of fertility, disturbance of blood clotting, and, most frequently in children, suspected hematopoetic disorders.

 

Usually, the severity of the Pyrethroid-intoxication-disease is underestimated. In concurrence with the observations of other authors, the acute and subacute PI have caused 10 to 45 days clinical-treatment and 2 to 8 months working incapability. In people over 40 years of age the respective periods have been longer and the restitution is distinctly reduced. The following residual symptoms due to a subsided acute or subacute intoxication were observed after a period of two years: sensory motor disturbances, visual disturbances, tinnitus, reduced intellectual performance (endurance during mental work was reduced by 20% to 30%), reduced exercised tolerance, meteorosensitivity, uttering disturbances in the region of autonomous nerve system (paroxysmal tachycardia, increased heat-sensitivity, loss of libido, advanced aging), chronic infectious diseases. After period of 1 to 1,5 years and in phases of good condition the original physical capability seemed to be regained. However, during mental or physical stress, the initial neurological symptoms temporarily recurred.

 

The chronic state resulting mainly from exposure of many years standing is characterized by neurological symptoms (senso- and motor- polyneuropathy, anterior-horn diseases of the spinal cord with hemi-pareses, or myasthenic-like syndrome -occasionally with progressive course, personality disorder) and by the symptoms of the Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) (39%), or the Chronique Fatigue Immunodysfunction Syndrome (CFS) (25%).

 

H. Muller-Mohnssen, Ph.D., Center for Environmental and Health, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Germany

 

OUTLINE

 

Outline information not available at time of printing.

 

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Joseph R. Novak, Texas A&M University

THE GARDEN AS A CATALYST IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

 

Gardening is the most popular hobby in the U. S. and the most common use of leisure time. More people are gardening today than at any time in the last fifty years. The primary benefits of gardening have usually been assumed to be the production of fruits, vegetables, herbs and ornamental plants for their food and beauty, but gardening also provides recreational, social, therapeutic, and ecological benefits. In urban areas gardening programs can be used as catalysts for stimulation of neighborhood development. Many anecdotal reports exist of the benefits of gardening in stimulating neighborhood beautification, increasing socialization, reducing crime and other antisocial activity, increasing pride in neighborhood and increasing pride in self. Garden programs can help empower people in low income neighborhoods to work for change in their neighborhoods. As research reveals the values of garden programs in urban areas, it must also be recognized that many common garden practices used today are destructive. The form of gardening that must be promoted through these garden programs is organic gardening.

 

Joseph R. Novak, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas

 

OUTLINE

 

Outline information not available at time of printing.

 

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Joseph R. Novak, Texas A&M University

 

ORGANIC VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

 

Gardening is the most popular hobby in the U. S. and the most common use of leisure time. More people are gardening today than at any time in the last fifty years. The primary benefits of gardening have usually been assumed to be the production of fruits, vegetables, herbs and ornamental plants for their food and beauty, but gardening also provides recreational, social, therapeutic, and ecological benefits. Many common garden practices used today are destructive. By employing simple solutions to garden problems, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, gardeners often compound their problems and adversely affect their garden=s natural ecosystem. Gardening has become a common source of problems, such as air, water, and soil pollution and excessive use of landfills, in many urban environments. Understanding the complex garden ecosystem is essential to a successful organic garden. The two keys to a productive organic garden are careful management of the soil and careful management of organism in the plant=s environment. Composts, mulches, attracting beneficial organisms and altering the environment to prevent the development of pests are among the primary practices employed to achieve an environmentally sound garden which will produce the greatest health benefits to the gardener and prevent destruction of the garden=s ecosystem.

 

Joseph R. Novak, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas

 

OUTLINE

 

Outline information not available at time of printing.

 

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Jon B. Pangborn, Ph.D.

Doctor's Data Laboratory

West Chicago, IL 60185

 

Topic 1: NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF COMMERCIAL FOODS vs ORGANICALLY GROWN FOODS. A quantitative summary of elemental content will be presented in ratio form: % increased or decreased in sampled foods.

 

Topics 2: REVIEW OF DETOXICATION AND DETOXIFICATION. Discussed will be conjugation of functionalized xenobiotics by glucuronate and by glutathione. Appropriate laboratory tests will be shown as examples of diagnostic tools.

 

Topic 3: ALUMINUM TOXICITY. Aluminum is prevalent in our environment. Assimilation of aluminum can result in physiological and pathological problems including disordered amino acid metabolism and hyperammonemia.

 

Jon B. Pangborn, Ph.D., Doctor=s Data Laboratory, West Chicago, Illinois

 

OUTLINE

 

Outline information not available at time of printing.

 

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Doris J. Rapp, M.D., Environmental Allergy Center, Buffalo, New York

 

SOME EXCEPTIONAL PATIENTS

 

A number of videos will be briefly shown of children and young adults which will demonstrate the following: visual problems, walking difficulty, violence, fatigue, vulgarity, seasonal suicidal threats, eczema, silliness, extreme anger, and threats to kill. The problems associated with their education and family acceptance will be discussed. One youngster will be discussed in more depth.

 

DM, and 11 year old allergic boy will be shown in more depth. At age 10 years, he had San Joaquin fever. He was also exposed to chemicals. He became so weak he could not walk. His vision was markedly reduced. He could not read smaller than about 6 inches in size. MRI was negative 6/93. Very strange walk 12/93. Needed P/N coccidio. Vaccine treatment plus treatment for flu and typical inhalants and foods. Video of youngster and mother will be presented along with some of the social and family problems that have ensued.

 

Doris J. Rapp, M.D., Environmental Allergy Center, Buffalo, New York

 

OUTLINE

 

Outline information not available at time of printing.

 

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William J. Rea, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.A.A.E.M., Environmental Health Center - Dallas, Dallas, TX

 

NATURAL TOXINS IN FOODS

 

The general categories of polyphenolics, glycosides, alkaloids and select proteins make up the natural toxicants in plants.

 

There are several general types of each category. The types of polyphenols can be categorized into phenolic acids, lignins, quinones, flavanoids and tannins. All are known to cause disruption of some part of metabolism. Glycosides are wide ranging including digitalis, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, saponins, calcinogenic and carcinogenic glycosides. Alkaloids are in many foods and can be nicotinic, carcinogenic, solanine, piperdine and other toxics in many foods. Proteins like thiamines, proteinase inhibitors, lectins and lathyrisms can cause problems in selected individuals.

 

William J. Rea, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.A.A.E.M., Environmental Health Center - Dallas, Dallas, TX

 

OUTLINE

 

Goals and objectives:

 

The goal is for the physicians to become familiar with the above.

 

The objective is for the physician to learn what foods are potentially toxic.

 

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William J. Rea, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.A.A.E.M. and Berti Griffiths, Ph.D., Environmental Health Center - Dallas, Dallas, TX and Boalian Liu, M.D., Ph.D., Shanxi Medical College, Shanxi, China

 

AUTOGENOUS LYMPHOCYTIC FACTOR IN THE TREATMENT OF CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY

 

One hundred forty cases (age 2-70 years, average 48.3 years, 88F, 22M) with chemical sensitivity with abnormal T-cells and abnormal cell cycles and CMI were treated with ALF. Clinical improvement occurred in 85 cases (87%). Sixteen cases showed no improvement and 6 (5%) of the patients could not tolerate the ALF. Complications in the six patients included pain and irritation of the throat, burning of the eyes, nausea, chest tightness, palpitations, flulike symptoms, headaches, fatigue, chills, increase in food sensitivity and odor sensitivity. Both G0 - G1 - phase plus G2 - M phase of the cell cycle showed statistical improvement (P<.05) as did the CMIs (P<.05). The T&B cells improved (P<.05).

 

William J. Rea, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.A.A.E.M., Environmental Health Center - Dallas, Dallas, TX

 

OUTLINE

 

Goals and objectives:

 

The goal is to inform people about the help of the cell cycle.

 

The objective is to educate people on who can be treated with the ALF.

 

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William J. Rea, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.A.A.E.M., Environmental Health Center - Dallas, Dallas, TX

 

INTRAVENOUS HYPER ALIMENTATION

 

For the last 30 years this author has studied and reported the effects of intravenous hyper alimentation in the medical and surgical patient who are in a catabolic state. Over 300 chemically sensitive patients who were in severe catabolic states weighing between 65 and 90 pounds have been treated by intravenous hyper alimentation at the Environmental Health Center - Dallas. All patients were hospitalized in the ECU for the commencing of the IV hyper alimentation. Twenty-five patients will be described in detail. All patients were intolerant of all foods and had a period of gastrointestinal rest and intradermal neutralization before resuming food. Intravenous nutrition usually consisted of 2,000 and 3,000 calories daily. These included 8.5% amino acid, 50% dextrose and 10-20% Liposyn. Other intravenous nutrients including preservative free vitamins, 15 gm vitamin C, B-complex, 2 cc minerals, magnesium sulphate, glutathione, and taurine was also given. Average amount of weight gain was 10 pounds. All but four patients gained their foods back and diminished their chemical sensitivity. One patient could not tolerate the IV hyper alimentation well and had to stop with minimal weight gain. Three patients died of malnutrition and chemical sensitivity in spite of the IV hyper alimentation with failure to tolerate enough calories to survive.

 

William J. Rea, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.A.A.E.M., Environmental Health Center - Dallas, Dallas, TX

 

OUTLINE

 

Goals and objectives:

 

The goal is to familiarize physicians to the malnutrition problem in a subset of patients.

 

The objective is the teaching of the possibilities of intravenous HYPER ALIMENTATION in the chemically sensitive patient.

 

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Sherry A. Rogers, M. D.

Northeast Center for Environmental Medicine

 

TECHNIQUES TO PROMOTE SURVIVAL AND SPEED HEALING

 

Goals and objectives:

 

To describe referenced techniques who combinations have accelerated healing when none could be expected.

 

Abstract:

 

Medical research has shown that you can triple cancer survival with the macrobiotic diet. There are numerous mechanisms since phyto-chemicals antagonize tumor cell growth and induce Phase II xenobiotic detoxication. Further research has shown that certain nutrients will make cancer cells revert back to non-cancerous cells and cause a redifferentiation and re-establish gap junctional intracellular proteins. As well, studies show that even rudimentary nutrient prescriptions can reduce the recurrence of cancers by over 50%. Furthermore, other research has shown that enzymes can promote cancer differentiation, induce tumor necrosis factor, and increase depressed T cell counts. Furthermore, use of the esters kahweol and caffestol can induce glutathione-S-transferace, thereby accelerating detoxication. We will present a program that combines many of these aspects and more, to illustrate how people have reversed cancers or accelerated the healing of difficult conditions when they were given up on by medicine. It appears that the name of the condition or diagnostic label applied to the individual is of little significance. What really matters is that the total load can be reduced sufficiently to allow natural healing to occur.

 

Conclusion:

 

It is important to ignore fatal or terminal prognostications until these harmless, natural and biochemically based techniques have been utilized.

 

References contained in:

 

1. Rogers SA, Wellness Against All Odds, Sand Key Publ., P. O. box 40101, Sarasota, FL 34242

 

2. Rogers SA, The Scientific Basis of Selected Environmental Medicine Techniques, ibid

 

3. Maurer HR, et al, Bromelain induces the differentiation of leukemic cells in vitro: An explanation for its cytostatic effects? Planta Medica, p 377-380, 1988

 

4. Holland PDJ, et al, The enhancing influence of proteolysis on E rosette forming lymphocytes (T cells) in vivo and vitro., Brit J Cancer, 31:164-169, 1975.

 

5. Desser L, Rehberger A, Induction of tumor necrosis factor in human peripheral-blood mononuclear cells by protedytic enzymes, Oncology, 47;475-477, 1990

 

6. Spinozzi F, et al, The natural tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein produces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, Leukemia Research, 18(6): 431-9, 1994

7. Zhang Y, et al, Anticarcinogenic activities of sulforaphane and structurally related synthetic nor bony isothiocyanates, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 91:3147-3150, Apr 1994

 

8. Prochaska H, Rapid detection of inducers of enzymes that protect against carcinogens, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 89:2394-2398, March 1992

 

9. Rogers M, et al, Retinoid-enhanced gap junctional communication is achieved by increased levels of Connexin 43 in RNA and protein, Molec Carcinogenesis 1990; 3:335-43

 

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Gerald H. Ross, M.D., Environmental Health Center - Dallas, Texas

 

MAN MADE FOOD TOXINS

 

The dramatic rise in the use of herbicides, pesticides and insecticides over the last forty to fifty years has a significant impact on the quality of food that is consumed. Total pesticide purchases in 1954 were $157 million and by 1980 had risen to $4.2 billion. The spectrum of chemical additives will be reviewed, including the various preservatives, aesthetic agents, texturizers and stabilizers, processing agents and other additives to food. Historical aspects of the earliest known preservatives will be introduced, and the issue of the potentially toxic exposures of pesticides received by infants and children, will be highlighted. For example, one-third of a child's lifetime exposure to and cancer risk from some pesticides will accumulate by age five. By his or her first birthday, the average American child's exposure to some carcinogenic pesticides will exceed the federal government's lifetime acceptable cancer-risk threshold.

 

Gerald H. Ross, M.D., Environmental Health Center - Dallas, Texas

 

OUTLINE

 

Goals and Objectives:

 

To review with the participants the common range of food additives and contaminants, and to highlight some of their adverse health consequences, including their tendency to worsen chemical sensitivity.

 

Conclusion of what is to be learned:

 

A demonstration of the growing panoply of various chemical contaminants and additives that end up in our modern food supply, and the potential that it has for significant human health consequences.

 

References:

 

Regenstein, L.: How to Survive in America the Poisoned. Acropolis Books, Washington, D.C., 1986

 

Rea, W.J.: Chemical Sensitivity, Volume 2. Lewis Publishers, Bacca Raton, 1994

 

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Gerald H. Ross, M.D., Environmental Health Center - Dallas, Texas

 

INTRAVENOUS NUTRITION

 

A review of the frequent nutritional abnormalities that are seen in chemically sensitive and food sensitive patients will be presented, along with specific nutrient replacement therapeutic goals. The common intravenous ingredients, including amino acids, vitamins, minerals, lipids and antioxidants will be reviewed with indications where they might be effectively used. Data on laboratory nutritional analysis on Environmental Health Center-Dallas patients will be presented, including the improvements seen after intravenous infusion of nutrients in a program of dietary and environmental changes.

 

Gerald H. Ross, M.D., Environmental Health Center - Dallas, Texas

 

OUTLINE

 

Goals and Objectives:

 

To present a review of commonly used intravenous nutrient protocols that are of benefit in the chemically sensitive or malnourished patient.

 

Conclusion of what is to be learned:

 

The recognition of the frequent nutritional imbalances seen in chemically sensitive or food sensitive patients, often resulting in clinically relevant malnutrition, which can lead to impairment of immunity and impairment in detoxification. The philosophies and methodologies used to address these problems with intravenous nutrition will be gained by the participants.

 

References:

 

Rea, W.J.: Chemical Sensitivity, Volume 4. Tools of Diagnosis and Methods of Treatment. Lewis Publishers, Bacca Raton, Florida. In press.

 

Ross, G. H.: Treatment Options in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Volume 8, No.4, 1992, 87-94.

 

Ross, G. H.: Evidence for Vitamin Deficiencies in Environmentally-Sensitive Patients. Clinical Ecology, Volume 6, No. 2,1992: 60-68.

 

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William G. Sargent, O.D., R.P.H., Pikeville, Kentucky

 

PRISM CORRECTION OF PTOSIS

 

This paper will show the interactive relationships of the different branches of the third cranial nerve. Conditions of vertical misalignment requires additional electrical impulses to the superior recti muscles for exact alignment of the two eyes, thus a greater usage of electrical impulses are observed by the individual demonstrating binocular vision. Many such patients show ipsilateral or bilateral lid ptosis. Relieving prism reduces the need for electrical impulses necessary for exact alignment, therefore, ipsilateral and bilateral lid ptosis are corrected with exact alignment of the two eyes.

 

Over activity of one branch of a cranial nerve reduces the activity of another branch of the same nerve. Under activity will therefore increase the possible activity of a different branch of the same nerve. The adage of Robbing Peter to pay Paul:, appears the expected in functioning of the branches of the same nerve. Priority functions receive electrical impulses while other functions, like the levator muscle, receive a reduced supply of impulses which cause the eye lid to droop. If the retinal disparity are severe one eye will totally close. Increased demand on a branch of the third cranial nerve will delete a branch of another cranial nerve. This is evidenced in Bell's Palsy.

 

Hundreds of patients with ipsilateral or bilateral lid ptosis and retinal fixation disparities responded to relieving prisms for correction of ptosis and retinal disparities.

 

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William G. Sargent, O.D., R.P.H., Pikeville, Kentucky

 

HORMONES REGULATED BY THE BRAIN STEM

 

Hormones are regulated by internal demand caused by external stimuli of the environment. Internal controls involves the biological clocks found in the hypothalamus of the brain stem. Several clocks are found in the hypothalamus plus others in different locations of the brain. Researchers believe the master clock is now located in the hypothalamus and is called the suprachiasmatic nucleus1. Two characteristics make it appear the master clock. First, it has a clear, coordinated rhythm of its own, an endogenous rhythm it can maintain even as the tissues around it begin to lose theirs. Second, the suprachiasmatic nucleus is the receiving station of information flowing from the eyes to the hypothalamus, a nerve pathway that carries information about the environmental conditions of light and darkness to the brain stem6.

 

Retinohypothalamic fibers arise from ganglion cells of the retina, and project via the optic nerves and chiasm to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Impulses initiated by ambient light thus influence hypothalamic neurons which provide hormonal regulation of the reproductive cycle2-3-4 However, brain stem sensitivity is the determining factor for execution of the suprachiasmatic nucleus signals. Ocular muscle imbalance causes the brain stem to malfunction, thus, a change in concentration of hormones and neurotransmitters. Most all hormones are regulated by the hypothalamus5, some by stimulation and others by inhibition. Circadian rhythms, genetic rhythms, metabolic activity, drives, feedback loops, magnetic fields and high tides are involved with regulation of hormones. Relieving prism restores normal function of the brain stem.

 

William G. Sargent, O.D., R.P.H., Pikeville, Kentucky

 

OUTLINE

 

Goals and objectives:

 

To introduce a new treatment for systemic diseases.

 

Conclusion of what is to be learned:

 

A drugless approach for correction of many systemic diseases and a solution to problems not yet known.

 

References:

 

A. O. Vectographic equipment and 21 years of clinical corrections.

 

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Theodore R. Simon, M.D., Nuclear Medicine Consultants of Texas, Dallas, Texas: SPECT SCAN CHANGES IN THE CHEMICALLY SENSITIVE

 

Goals and Objectives

SPECT has identified abnormalities in patients with neurotoxic exposure. These abnormalities form patterns that are distinct from other processes but are similar to those seen in certain other instances. This talk will illustrate the pattern and show related patterns in order to give the audience an understanding of how SPECT may be useful in the practice of environmental medicine.

 

Outline of talk

The talk will review SPEC technology. It will then trace the use of SPECT in Environmental Medicine. Finally, it will focus on patterns encountered using SPECT in a practice of Environmental Medicine with advice regarding the implications of these findings.

 

Conclusion of what is to be learned

The audience will learn whether SPECT is applicable to one=s practice. Principles for evaluating SPECT support from imaging laboratories will help them to evaluate the work of consultants. Finally, outcome analysis will be presented to help determine how much confidence should be placed in this part of the overall evaluation.

 

Reference

 

Gerard SK, MacKay S, Grossman N, Fein G: Abnormal Focal Cerebral Perfusion by Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT in Cocaine-Dependent Polysubstance Abusers. 18:923

 

Heuser G, Mena I, Goldstein J, Thomas C and Alamos F: Neurospect Findings in Patients Exposed to Neurotoxic Chemicals. 18:923

 

Holman BL, Mendelson J, Garada B, Teoh SK, Hallgring E, Johnson KA and Mello NK: Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Improves with Treatment in Chronic Cocaine Polydrug Users. J. Nucl. Med. 34.723-727, 1993

 

Simon TR, Cowden E, Seastrunk JW, Weiner E and Hickey DC. Chronic fatigue syndrome: Flow and functional abnormalities seen with SPECT. Radiological Society of North America, 1991. Radiology 181(P):173, 1991

 

Simon TR, Seastrunk JW, Malone G. Knesevich MA and Hickey DC. Drug abuse: Diagnosis and therapy with SPECT. Radiological Society of North America, 1991. Radiology 181(P):129, 1991

 

Simon TR, Hickey DC, Rea WJ, Johnson AR, Ross GM, Fincher C, Harrell EH and Kettlehut M. Breast implants and organic solvent exposure can be associated with abnormal cerebral SPECT studies in clinically impaired patients. Radiological Society of North America, 1992. Radiology 185:(P):234, 1992

 

Simon TR, Hickey DC, Fincher CE, Johnson AR, Ross GH and Rea WJ: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography of the brain in patients with chemical sensitivities. Toxicology and Industrial Health (In Press).

 

Weber DA, Franceschi D, Ivanovic M, Atkins HL, Cabahug C, Wong CTC and Susskind H: SPECT and Planar Brain Imaging in Crack Abuse: Iodine 123 Iodoamphetamine Uptake and Localization. J. Nucl. Med. 34:899-907, 1993.

 

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Nicolette I. Teufel, Ph.D. University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

 

NUTRIENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN PRECONTACT AND EARLY HISTORIC DIET OF THE SOUTHWEST

 

The precontact and early historic diet of native North Americans living in the Southwest varied relative to the availability of water and the distribution and density of plant and animal resources. Paleolithic big game hunting was short lived in the arid southwest and by 9000 B.C. the predominant subsistence pattern was plant gathering supplemented by hunting. Many arid land adapted plant are high in complex carbohydrates (e.g. amylose), dietary fiber (e.g. pectins, gums and extra cellular mucilages), hypoglycemic chemical compounds (e.g. alkaloids and flavonosides) and antioxidant micronutrients (e.g. vitamin c, Vitamin a and cartenoids). These characteristics enhance plant reproduction and survival by improving water absorption and retention, by providing protection from predation and strong, desiccating winds and by yielding colors attractive to potential pollinators. For early Native Americans, the acquisition and processing of these foods would have required moderate levels of regular physical activity and, consumption would have provided a slowly digestible, high carbohydrate and micronutrient dense food source having high satiety and moderate energy (kilocalories) availability due to the high fiber content. In some areas of the Southwest, this emphasis on plant foods led to the development and eventual dependency on irrigation or dryland agriculture, supplemented with hunting and gathering. The varieties of plants domesticated, predominantly corn, beans and squash, are lower in simple carbohydrates and higher in mineral content than modern commercial varieties. Prior to the adoption of foods introduced by non-Native Americans, Native Americans consumed foods characterized as high in complex carbohydrates and fiber, moderate in protein and energy, and low in saturated fat. Furthermore, subsistence activities required an accompanying moderate level of regular physical exercise.

 

INFORMATION FOR ACCREDITATION REQUIREMENTS

 

Nicolette I. Teufel, Ph.D. University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

 

NUTRIENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN PRECONTACT AND EARLY HISTORIC DIET OF THE SOUTHWEST

 

Goals and Objectives of Presentation: 1) To describe the precontact and early historic diet of Southwest Native Americans; 2) To discuss the level of physical activity required to procure and process arid lands foods and; 3) To examine how the characteristics of plants and animals adapted to arid lands provide foods having unique nutritional benefits to humans.

 

Conclusion: In the precontact and early historic periods, Southwest Native Americans consumed wild and domesticated foods which have unique and beneficial nutrient characteristics and which required regular physical activity to procure and process.

 

References (others will accompany paper):

 

Nabhan, GP, Weber, CW and Berry, JW (1985) Variation in the composition of Hopi beans. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 16:135-152

 

O=Dea, K (1984) Marked improvement in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic Australian Aborigines after temporary reversion to traditional lifestyle. Diabetes 30:596-603.

 

Winkelman, M. (1992) Pharmacological properties of some Piman (O=Odham) medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes. Native Seeds/SEARCH Monograph No. 1. Tucson, AZ.

 

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Nicolette I. Teufel, Ph.D. University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

 

NUTRIENT-HEALTH ASSOCIATIONS IN THE CONTEMPORARY DIETS OF SOUTHWEST NATIVE AMERICANS

 

Over the past three decades, nutritional characteristics and associated lifestyle factors, e.g. activity level, having contributed to at least 4 of the 10 leading causes of Native American mortality and morbidity: heart disease, cancer, cirrhosis and diabetes. Over the past three centuries, Native American diet and activity level has changed dramatically. In the Southwest, the high fiber, nutrient dense precontact foods which required a moderate level of regular physical activity to gather, hunt and process have been replaced with readily accessible, low fiber, high fat and high sugar foods and beverages. Change in diet and activity level has been accompanied by a shift in epidemiological patterns. Infectious diseases, once threatening the very survival of the indigenous people of North America, has been overshadowed by chronic diseases which may be triggered and are certainly exacerbated by food choices and sedentism. In the Southwest, Native Americans exhibit mortality and morbidity rates attributed to non-insulin dependent diabetes, cirrhosis of the liver and cancers of the gallbladder, stomach, cervix uteri and liver, which are two to three times higher than that reported for Euro-Americans. Intervention trials among both Native Americans and non-Native Americans demonstrate that consumption of a high fiber, low fat diet and regular physical activity can be used not only in the treatment but perhaps more importantly in the prevention or delay of disease onset. These findings suggest that culturally acceptable and economically feasible changes in the diet and activity patterns of Native Americans could reduce disease risks and improve health outcomes.

 

 

INFORMATION FOR ACCREDITATION

 

Nicolette I. Teufel, Ph.D. University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

 

NUTRIENT-HEALTH ASSOCIATIONS IN THE CONTEMPORARY DIETS OF SOUTHWEST NATIVE AMERICANS

 

Goals and Objectives of Presentation: 1) To discuss the diet and activity level of Southwest Native Americans in the context of their patterns of mortality and morbidity; 2) To describe characteristics of contemporary diet and activity patterns which might place Native Americans at increased risk of heart disease, diabetes, cirrhosis and certain cancers and; 3) To suggest methods for developing culturally acceptable and economically feasible changes in Native American diet and activity level.

 

Conclusion: Currently many Native Americans in the Southwest consume a low fiber, high fat and high sugar diet and are physically inactive. This combination of lifestyle characteristics is associated with high rates of diabetes, heart disease and diet related cancers.

 

References (others will accompany paper):

 

Jackson, MY (1986) Nutrition in American Indian Health: past, present and future. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 86 (11): 1561-1565

 

Smith, CJ, Schakel, SF and Nelson, RG (1991) Selected traditional and contemporary foods currently used by Pima Indians. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 91 (3): 338-341

 

Teufel, NI and Dufour, DL (1990) Patterns of food use and nutrient intake of obese and non-obese Hualapai Indian women of Arizona. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 60(9):1229-1235

 

Teufel, NI (1995) Alcohol consumption and its effect on the dietary patterns of Hualapai Indian women. Medical Anthropology (in press). Willett, WC (1992) Diet and health: What should we eat? Science 264:532-537.

 

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